Summary (2nd)

In the article by Lambert Gardiner, the method of having virtual worlds as a medium is explored. Much like the mediums of print, radio, and film, an addition medium is that of “hypermedia”, which is media that is digitally stored and accessed. He goes onto say that traditional media has the viewer visit an alternative reality, hypermedia has the viewer come into a virtual reality, where they can interact with the objects and setting around them.

On a computer, we interact with hypermedia in a basic way. To delete files we put them in the trash can, to play music we use iTunes, etc. We interact with our programs in human ways. On a large scale, hypermedia is a virtual world. This is where the trashcan would become real and we could put deleted items in there ourselves. We could also go as far as to change the actual setting of the virtual world.

This new medium raises an interesting question though; does this make the body obsolete? Do we need to live within our bodies to enjoy a fruitful life, when we can just live our lives through virtual worlds? It’s a question with no clear answer that will only be debated more fervently as virtual worlds and hypermedia become increasingly advanced and woven into our culture.


Gardiner, Lambert W. “Virtual Reality/Cyberspace: Challenges to Communication Studies.” CBCA. ProQuest, Summer 1993. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <;.


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