Tag Archives: Ian Smyth

Assignment Five: Formal Essay

My new media research methodologies essay on Synthetic Biology can be found by clicking this

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Assignment One: Presentation

This is my Androids presentation.

From researching my presentation topic I learnt about the other side of creating Androids and humanoid robots; their design. If humanoid robots are to be integrated into society one day, we have to be able to comfortably accept them and be willing to work alongside them. Apart of this comfortability comes from how they look. What I found was that there is a certain design on humanoid robots that has us feeling threatened, because we find some parts of it frightening and others not. This is called the “uncanny valley”, which lies between robotics that we know are not human and robotics that we can’t distinguish from other humans. If Androids are to live alongside us, researchers must find a way to make them move and exist without lying in the uncanny valley, or our basic survival instincts will be to reject them.

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CSS 101

Group: Ian (1, 2, 3), Saria (4, 5, 6), Cristian (7, 8), Alejandro (9, 10)

1) What is CSS?

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheet and was created in 1997 to separate design from content when creating websites. This way HTML could perform as scripting to actually produce content and create the webpages, and CSS could perform the task of designing the layout of the webpages. Every webpage is affected by a default CSS implemented by the browser which decides the default layout for things such as text font and size. However, the web designer can override this default by scripting CSS of their own, telling the browser to display a different kind of layout than the default.

CSS can be applied in the script of HTML itself by way of making a “style” tag (internal). It can also be applied by being scripted in a separate sheet and having that sheet be linked to the HTML page (external).

Source: http://webdesign.about.com/od/beginningcss/a/aa021607.htm

2) Through examples, explain how the CSS syntax works.

Example: body {background-colour: #FF0000;}

Body: this is an example of the selector, which is the part that the HTML script applies the style to (so this would be applied to the body).

{background-colour:}: this is an example of the property, which is what part of the webpage will be affected (in this case the background would be).

#FF0000: this is an example of the value, which is what style will actually be changed (the background colour would become this colour in this instance).

This can be implemented into the website via inline scripting (by using a tag) or by linking to the external styling page.

Source: http://html.net/tutorials/css/lesson2.php

3) Through examples, explain the difference between id and class.

CSS allows you to specify your own selectors called id or class.

id selector: the id selector is used to specify a style for a single element. It is defined with a “#”. Example: #para {text-align: center; colour; red}

class selector: the class selector is used to specify a style for a group of elements. It is defined with a “.” Example: .center {text-align: center;}

Source: http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_id_class.asp

4) Through examples, explain the difference between external style sheet, internal style sheet and inline style, when is it better to use one over the other?

There are 3 ways to insert CSS into style sheets. CSS can be inserted using external style sheet, internal style sheet, and inline style.

External Style Sheet: If the style you’re using is applied to a number of different pages, then the external style sheet would be ideal for this use. It is easier to manage because by simply changing one file you could alter the look of the entire webpage. In order for this to work, each page must link to the style sheet using the <link> tag, which needs to be inserted in the head section.

Internal Style Sheet: If each of the pages in the entire webpage is unique and different from the other, then the internal style sheet should be used. This allows you to alter the single document with unique styles using the <style> tag inserted below the <head> tag.

Inline Styles: Despite the true purpose of CSS, which is to separate design from content, inline styles allow you to add content to CSS simply by using the style attribute in the relevant tag.


a) “Three Ways to Insert CSS.” W3schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_howto.asp.

b) “CSS Tutorial.” Tjzag.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.tizag.com/cssT/inline.php.

5) Through examples, explain the box model

The box model allows you to add a box around the html elements consisting of margins, borders, padding, and actual content. Using the margins usually clears an area around the border. It is completely transparent. As for the border, it goes around the padding and content. It’s usually affected by the background color. The padding clears as an area around the content. The content is where the actual text and images appear.

Source: “The CSS Box Model.” W3schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_boxmodel.asp.

6) Through examples, explain what floating and positions do. What is the difference?

The CSS float allows elements to be pushed to the left or right, rather than up or down. It’s often used for images. Only elements after the float will flow around it, elements before will not be affected. For example, if an image is floating to the left, the text will float around it to the right.

Source: “What Is CSS Float?” W3schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_float.asp.

7) Through examples, explain css grouping/nesting.

Grouping is when you take code that have the same properties and group them together but make them separate by adding a comma in between them. Nesting is the same thing but it is when you group within a group of selectors. Ex – Taking this…

h2 {color: red;}

.thisOtherClass {color: red;}

.yetAnotherClass {color: red;}

and grouping it to look like this:

h2, .thisOtherClass, .yetAnotherClass {color: red;}

Source: “Grouping and Nesting.” HTML Dog. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.htmldog.com/guides/css/intermediate/grouping/.

8) Through examples, explain how to align elements.

This puts the text where you would want it. After the code you can add {text-align:;} and then put either right, left, center, or justify. Justify will make all of the text equal to each other on the web page. Ex-

h1 {text-align:justify}p.date

{text-align:justify;} p.main


This will make all the text on the webpage be equal In length to each other.

Source: “CSS Text.” W3schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_text.asp.

9) Through examples, explain how to build a css navigation bar.

This is the HTML:
<div id=”menu”>
<li><a href=”index.html”>Home</a></li>
<li><a href=”aboutus.html”>About Us</a></li>
<li><a href=”services.html”>Services</a></li>
<li><a href=”contactus.html”>Contact Us</a></li>

This is the CSS for the whole menu:
#menu {
width: 550px;
height: 35px;
font-size: 16px;
font-family: Tahoma, Geneva, sans-serif;
font-weight: bold;
text-align: center;
text-shadow: 3px 2px 3px #333333;
background-color: #8AD9FF;
border-radius: 8px;

This is the CSS for the unordered list (ul):
#menu ul {
height: auto;
padding: 8px 0px;
margin: 0px;

This is the CSS for the listed item (il):
#menu li {
display: inline;
padding: 20px;

This is the basics to build a very ugly navigation bar and there are many variations to how to make a navigation bar, but this is the most common and simple one.

“How to Create Horizontal Navigation With CSS3.” How to Create Horizontal Navigation With CSS3. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.htmlgoodies.com/beyond/css/how-to-create-horizontal-navigation-with-css3.html.

10) Through examples, explain how to build a css based image gallery.

padding: 5px;
border:1px solid #0000ff;
div.img img
border:1px solid #ffffff;
div.img a:hover img
border:1px solid #0000ff;

<a target=”_blank” href=”klematis_big.htm”>
<img src=”klematis_small.jpg” alt=”Klematis” width=”110″ height=”90″>
<div>Add a description of the image here</div>
<a target=”_blank” href=”klematis2_big.htm”>
<img src=”klematis2_small.jpg” alt=”Klematis” width=”110″ height=”90″>
<div>Add a description of the image here</div>
<a target=”_blank” href=”klematis3_big.htm”>
<img src=”klematis3_small.jpg” alt=”Klematis” width=”110″ height=”90″>
<div>Add a description of the image here</div>
<a target=”_blank” href=”klematis4_big.htm”>
<img src=”klematis4_small.jpg” alt=”Klematis” width=”110″ height=”90″>
<div>Add a description of the image here</div>


Although this is a very simple gallery, there are open source galleries that can be used for wordpress and other web services. These galeries though are not only based on CSS, but they requiere for the coder to call on Queries.

“CSS Image Gallery.” CSS Image Gallery. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_image_gallery.asp.

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HTML 102

Group: Ian (1, 2, 3), Saria (4, 5, 6), Alejandro (7), Cristian (8, 9, 10)
1. What Image File Formats should be used for web pages, why (how does compression affect loading?)?
Most image file formats can be described as either being “lossy” or “lossless”. Lossy formats (JPG, BMP) lose data every time they’re tampered with and exclude some information (such as colours and pixels) to make the full sized image a smaller file size. Lossless formats preserve all the information but may be large in size (PNG).
The size of the file affects the time it takes to load the content on the webpage. Large, PNG images will take longer to load than low quality JPG images because the file size is drastically different. On a webpage the most common, settled choice seems to be medium quality JPGs, as they are quick to load and preserve a good amount of detail. Of course, on websites such as those from major companies and the government, it’s important to have high quality imagery and thus longer page loading may be traded for higher quality images. It all comes down to the balance between image quality and page loading.
Source: “How to Choose the Right Image File Format for Your Needs.” Ransen Software. Cad and Graphics Software, 2012. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.ransen.com/articles/Formats/Image-Formats.htm.
2. How do you optimize images for the web?
You can optimize images for the web by using online services that can shrink images while maintaining their original picture. Some services remove unnecessary bytes, leaving the bare minimum for the detail in the image. Other services turn your file formats into lossy formats, reducing the size of the image but also compromising the quality. Some services have even mastered the way to compress images to small file sizes without losing any information.
Source: Muller, Gisele. “Tools and Tips on How to Optimize Images for the Web.” WDL. N.p., 7 Feb. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://webdesignledger.com/tips/tools-and-tips-on-how-to-optimize-images-for-the-web.
3What tricks and tips can you use to make your webpage load faster?
a) Use less javascript in your pages. Javascript takes more time than usual scripting to be read by the browser so try to use the least amount as possible, as well as the compressed version.
b) Use small sized media files. Reduce the file size of images and video to have the webpage load faster, which can include lowering the quality of the media or cropping parts that don’t need to be there.
c) Have no blank space in the source code. Blank space is still read by a web browser, so by removing as much space as possible there’s less things to be read and therefore less time it will take to load the page.
d) Enable caching. Caching is a temporary storage that the browser uses to remember that you’ve visited the website before. Enabling caching on your website can greatly increase loading speeds as the browser will pull information from it’s memory (cache). This can also help reduce bandwidth usage and server loading.
e) Use the CDN (Content Distribution Network). CDN is a large system connected through multiple servers spread in multiple data centres across the internet. This can help make webpages full of multimedia and Javascript pages load quickly.
Source: Sharma, Raman. “5 Easy & Effective Tricks To Make Your Website Load Faster.” All Useful Info. N.p., 6 Oct. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://allusefulinfo.com/5-easy-effective-tricks-to-make-your-website-load-faster/.
4) How can you use images in css, show us examples?

Images are usually added to HTML because it’s a lot easier. In order to add images in CSS, this following code must be used:

Body {background-image:url (‘insert name of file.jpg’) ; }

For example, if my file name was called “flower.jpg” this following code would be used:

Body {background-image:url (‘flower.jpg’) ; }

“CSS background properties are used to define the background effects of an element.”

Source: “CSS Background.” W3schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/css/css_background.asp.

5) How To Add a YouTube Video to Your Web Site and video in html5?

To add videos to html5 this following code should be used:

<video width=”340” height=”450” controls>

<source src=”nameoffile.mp4” type=”nameoffile/mp4”>

<source src=”nameoffile.ogg” type=”nameoffile/ogg”>


To add a video from YouTube, this following code should be used:


a) “HTML5 Video.” W3schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/html/html5_video.asp.

b) “HTML – YouTube Videos.” W3schools. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_youtube.asp.

6) How do you optimize video for the web and incorporate it in your web page?

 In order to optimize the video, keep in mind these few tips.

– Make sure the video is in its right file format:

Here are a few file formats: .mpg, .mp4, .mov, .wmv, .asf, .avi, .ra, .ram, .rm, .fly

– Page title

The page title should say something about the video to enhance search results

– Description

Keep the description brief and straight to the point. A description is important because it highlights what the video’s main points are to the page viewers.

– Comments

Allow viewers to post comments on your videos. It’s a way for viewers to engage with content.

– Rating

Allow viewers to rate your videos as popularity is one of the factors that determine the strength of your content

– Social media buttons (crucial!)

Make sure your videos have social media buttons so that page viewers can share this video to Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr… etc.

Source: Moehring, Keith. “Optimizing Video For Your Website (Part 3 of 3).” PR 20/20. N.p., 18 Aug. 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.pr2020.com/blog/optimizing-video-for-your-website.

7. How do you optimize sound for the web and incorporate it in your web page?

Audio files can be optimized by making sure the file names for audio are easy to locate, and easy to recognize. It is not the same to have a sound file name called: ding01.mp3, 01.mp3, ding.mp3 or even aif5b9e.mp3. Based on the previous examples, the best one would be ding01.mp3, because it is possible that there are other ‘ding’ files in the same file. By placing a number after the name, it will categorize it, and make it easier to locate. Also, a user will not be looking for a specific file but for a link that leads them to that file, it is very necessary to have links, text and transcripts to be very specific when referring to a specific file specifically video and audio files since browsers have a difficult time indexing them.

There are some easier ways to optimize audio, and that would be a tag called ID3 which helps to add information to an audio file. The ID3 is like having meta tags to your audio files so that the file can be easy located or so that the file can display its properties when called for. A final way to help optimize audio in a web page is to share the file with other sites that can spread the music, like radio station sites, iTunes or Soundcloud.

Source: “Multimedia SEO Guide: How to Optimize Images, Videos & Audio for Top Rankings.”
Ineedhits RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013.

8. What are some of the dos and don’ts of web design with media?

• People should be able to navigate through the website easily without problem. It should not take very long to go from place to place within the website.
• Everything should be close to each other and the colours used should be more understated so that it is easy to read the website.
• The fonts should be easy to read and understand.
• The content should all be related and put under certain headings so that they are easy to find.
• The security of the website should not be visible and it should be well protected.
a) “50 Questions to Evaluate the Quality of Your Website.” Search Engine Journal. N.p., 20 Feb. 2008. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.searchenginejournal.com/50-questions-to-evaluate-the-quality-of-your-website/6400/.
9. What resolution should you design for?
• The most used resolution for designing websites is 1024×768, which is the most popular resolution.
Source: Rohde, Michael. “What Screen Resolution Do You Design For? Using the Less Framework.” HTML Goodies. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.htmlgoodies.com/beyond/css/article.php/3921766.
10Designing for mobiles?
When designing for a website it is best to use the resolution of 320×480.
Source: Source: Rohde, Michael. “What Screen Resolution Do You Design For? Using the Less Framework.” HTML Goodies. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. http://www.htmlgoodies.com/beyond/css/article.php/3921766.
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HTML 101

Group: Ian, Cristian, Saria, Alejandro

The presentation about HTML and be found by clicking this.

I learnt from this how distinct CSS really is from HTML. HTML is essentially just designed as a way to implement the content of your website onto the web, but CSS is completely and utterly about how that content is presented and seen. One feels like work and one feels like play. It’s interesting how the two scripting languages play on each other and combine to produce a finished website.

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Group: Ian (1, 2, 3), Cristian (4, 5, 6), Saria (7, 8, 9, 10, 11), Alejandro (12)

1. What is a computer network?

A computer network is a group of computing systems that are linked together through a number of channels to communicate and share resources amongst a range of users. It’s a group of interconnected computers that can all talk to one another.


Janssen, Cory. “Computer Network.” Technopia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.techopedia.com/definition/25597/computer-network.

2. Define and explain visually the difference between these different types of networks:

Local Area Network: A local area network covers a small area, like a home or office. It’s most likely based on Ethernet technology.

Wide Are Network: A network that covers a broad range of geographic area.

Internet: A global network that connects millions of computers, including over 100 countries.

Intranet: A limited communications network, sometimes a private network made from World Wide Web software.

Metropolitan Area Network: A network that connects two or more local area networks together but does not leave a town or city.

Virtual Private Network: A private network that uses a public network (the Internet) to connect users together. The virtual connections are routed through the Internet from the business’s private network to the employee.


a) “Computer Networks.” Contrib. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~sfaiadh/computer_networks.htm.

b) “Internet.” Webopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/Internet.html.

c) Tyson, Jeff, and Stephanie Crawford. “How VPNs Work.” How Stuff Works. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.howstuffworks.com/vpn.htm.

3. How do these two types of networks differ?

Peer to Peer: A network where two or more computers share resources without having to go through a separate server. Data is stored between computers and on multiple computers.

Server-based: In this kind of network, the server is the central base where users can access information and resources to share. Each computer that connects to the server is called a client computer.


Cope, James. “QuickStudy: Peer-to-Peer Network.” Computerworld. N.p., 8 Apr. 2002. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/69883/Peer_to_Peer_Network.

4. What is the difference between a client and a server?

A client and a server are two parts of a common computing model. A user uses a computer (which is the client). The computer then sends requests to the server, which is usually located somewhere else remotely. The server takes the request and processes it, then sends back a response to the client.


“Difference Between Client and Server.” Difference Between. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/difference-between-client-and-server/.

5. What is the OSI model?

The OSI model is a theoretical model that explains how networks work. It contains seven layers (physical layer, datalink layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer.

Physical (Layer 1) – This layer outlines the physical characteristics of network devices, which includes cabling, wiring, and fibre strands. Transmission of data from the physical medium is managed at layer 1.

Datalink (Layer 2) – This layer has four primary functions: a) communication with the network layer above, b) segmentation of upper layer datagrams, c) bit ordering, and d) communication with the physical layer below.

Network (Layer 3) – This layer has the job of handling routing and preparing data for transmission.

Transport (Layer 4) – This layer has the responsibility of recovering lost or damaged data.

Session (Layer 5) – This layer tracks connections (sessions) and keeps track of multiple file downloads that are requested by an FTP application.

Presentation (Layer 6) – This layer takes the conversion of data and between platform independent formats to a format understood by the local machine.

Application (Layer 7) – This layer is the user interface. It shows data to people in a way they can understand.


InetDaemon. “What Is the OSI Model.” InetDaemon. N.p., 6 Mar. 2013. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.inetdaemon.com/tutorials/basic_concepts/network_models/osi_model/what_is_the_osi_model.shtml.

6. Identity 5 different network architectures, explain what each does.

Tiered architectures:

4 types:

One-tiered: This is when there is direct access from the client servers to the file server. This is a very efficient tier and it is very simple, but it is also not very secure.

Two-tiered: This is very similar to a one-tiered server but it is much more secure. It allows client servers to access certain ares of the file server when requested but does not have access too all information. This also allows multiple client servers to access it as long as they are accessing different parts of the file server.

Three-tiered of Multi-tiered: This adds another tier in-between the client and file server called the application server and this helps to organize the connection and control the high amount of traffic flow. This allows a lot of security and it allows the client server to have very fast access. The big problem with this is that it can be very expensive and complex.

Peer-to-Peer: This is when the peer server acts as both the client and the file server, and each is connected to each other. This is very simple and takes out any middle interfereance


a) Janssen, Cory. “Peer-to-Peer Architecture (P2P Architecture).” Technopia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.techopedia.com/definition/454/peer-to-peer-architecture-p2p-architecture.

b) Howitz, Carsten. “What Is 3-Tier(Multi-Tier) Architecture And Why Do You Need It?”Simcrest. N.p., 1 June 2012. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://blog.simcrest.com/what-is-3-tier-architecture-and-why-do-you-need-it/.

7. Define and visual explain what the following terms mean:

A protocol is a system used to transmit data (such as index files) in order to determine the type of error checking than needs to be used. It is also used for data compression (useful for communication) in order to determine how the device will indicate that a message has been sent. Protocols on your computer or device must be agreeable with the right ones if you need to communicate with other computers.


“Protocol.” Webopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/protocol.html.

TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol):
It is the communication language of the protocol of the Internet used in the intranet or extranet. It is a two-layer program of which the first layer of the TCP manages a message into smaller packets that can be transmitted over the internet and received by another TCP layer that reassembles these smaller packets into the original message.


Rouse, Margaret. “TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).” Search Networking. N.p., Oct. 2008. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/TCP-IP.

FTP (file transfer protocol):
A standard protocol used for the transfer of files between different computers on the Internet. FTP works in the similar way as the HTTP as it is an application protocol that uses the Internet’s transmission control protocol to transfer Internet files to its server to make it available to everyone on the Internet. “Commonly used to download programs and other files to your own computer from a different server”.


Rouse, Margaret. “File Transfer Protocol (FTP).” Search Enterprise WAN. N.p., Apr. 2007. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://searchenterprisewan.techtarget.com/definition/File-Transfer-Protocol.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol):
A protocol used by the World Wide Web. It defines how messages are transmitted and the actions that browsers should take in response to different commands. When a URL is entered into the browser, the HTTP is what directs the web server to transmit the requested web page.


“HTTP.” Webopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/HTTP.html.

It is a user initiated command used for accessing remote computers. With this underlying protocol is allows for the access of another user to enter someone else is computer remotely. With telnet you are able to log on as a “regular user with whatever privileges you may have been granted to the specific application and data on that computer”.


Rouse, Margaret. “Telnet.” Search Networking. N.p., Aug. 26. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Telnet.

8. What is a router?

A router is a small device that joins a number of different networks together and forwards data along these networks. It connects two or more networks that the router operates. Home networks use the Internet Protocol router. It is commonly connected to LANs or WANs. It is a critical device that keeps the networks connected to the Internet. Most Internet users use LAN (local area network) or a WLAN (wireless LAN) in order to connect all computers to the Internet without paying a broadband subscription.


a) Mitchell, Bradley. “Router.” About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/routers/g/bldef_router.htm.

b) Beal, Vangie. “All About Broadband/ICS Routers.” Webopedia. N.p., 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/2005/router.asp.

9. What is a network firewall?

It is a software program used in order to protect your computer from unauthorized access. They could also be hardware devices. They guard the computer’s internal and private network from outside access. A firewall works closely with proxy servers that make network requests on behalf of users. These firewalls provide extra safety LAN addresses from the outside Internet. “They help screen out hackers, viruses, and worms that try to reach your computer over the Internet”. School students that are unable to access Facebook and social networks at school often use proxies.

a) Mitchell, Bradley. “Firewall.” About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://compnetworking.about.com/od/firewalls/g/bldef_firewall.htm.

b) Rouse, Margaret. “Firewall.” Search Security. N.p., May 2007. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/firewall.

c) “What Is a Firewall?” Microsoft. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. <http://www.microsoft.com/security/pc-security/firewalls-whatis.aspx&gt;.

10. What is the difference between a web and ftp server?

Web server: A server used in order to communicate with web browsers as it usually uses the HTTP communication protocol. The web server is able to transfer HTTP request but not actual files as with FTP. FTP (file transfer protocol) is what allows the transfer of files from one computer to another.


“What’s a Web Server? How Does a Web Server Work?” Geek Explains. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://geekexplains.blogspot.ca/2008/06/whats-web-server-how-does-web-server.html.

11. What is an IP address?

An IP address is an Internet protocol. It is designed to allow one computer to communicate with another via the Internet. It allows billions of users to be differentiated from other devices. “In the same sense that someone needs your mailing address to send you a letter, a remote computer needs your IP address to communicate with your computer.” They serve as a permanent Internet address in order to allow other computers to communicate with you. There are two different types of IP addresses. There are the static IP addresses and the Dynamic IP addresses. A static IP address is used for online gaming where users are able to communicate with other computers faster. They are less secure than Dynamic IP addresses because they are easier to track. Dynamic IP addresses are temporary and are assigned each time the computer accesses the Internet.


“What Is an IP Address?” What Is My IP Address. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Nov. 2013. http://whatismyipaddress.com/ip-address.

12. How do you transfer files from a computer to a server? Create a small tutorial to teach us how to do it.

In order to transfer files from a computer to a server, several conditions have to apply first:

the server must be running– meaning that the server is connected to the internet, has space/memory to place files, and owns an IP addres.
the user has to have access to the internet– without access to the internet, then it is impossible to load files to the server unless it is a local server which only needs access to the router.

If these two conditions apply, then accessing the server is possible. There are different ways to place files in a server and it depends if it is a local or a far away server. What stays true though is that to access any of them you need an

  • IP address or host name
  • know the type of protocol being used (SFTP, FTP, FTPS, etc)
  • username
  • password

to access the server, generally the web browser is used but there are other softwares where it can grant you access like WinSCP (and variations of it for MAC and Linux). Anyway, using the web browser, the user has to put the URL/host name or IP address in the address bar to go to the server. Once there, it should ask for a username and password (which is set when installing the server). Once in you can change your password, and have access to all or some of the files there (depending on the user’s credentials). Now, the server has to have a button or a link that takes you to the uploading section of the page and make your transfers there.

I own a server, and I can access it locally too which is very convenient and faster. how this works is that your computer , since it is connected to the same router as the server, files can be transferred instantly, and without the hassle of going into the browser. Instead, the server folder appears on the explorer window (Windows), on the finder (mac) or on the nautilus (ubuntu/linux).

There is a third way. Only if the user has a software like Adobe Dreamweaver. If the server is used to store a website, then synchronizing the server with dreamweaver would be a great option since the software would take the data needed for the site. In the ‘Manage Sites’ panel, there is are several options. first the site has to be created into a root folder so that the website can have a firm location and source. then after the site is established, the user can go into the servers tab, and set up the server through the FTP (File Transfer Protocol) option. this way, the user inputs the address of the server, username and password, and the program does everything for you. the user will get two windows where he/she will see a nested list of folders inside the server in one, and another with the files in the computer. Once this is done, the user only has to drag the files from one location to another.

-one very important note- The file transfer speed for the computer to server and vice versa will be directly affected by the speed of the internet, so beware of large files. sometimes it is good to compress files before placing them in the server to make things faster and easier.

a) “Dendrome Project.” Dendrome Project. 01 Nov. 2013 http://dendrome.ucdavis.edu/help/faq/?faq_id=16.

b) “WinSCPFree SFTP, SCP and FTP client for Windows.” Connect to FTP server or SFTP server. 01 Nov. 2013

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SEO (Search Engine Optimization)

Group: Cristian Medeiros (1, 2, 3), Alejandro Flores (4, 5), Saria Sawaf (6, 7, 8), Ian Smyth (9, 10, 11)

1. How do search engines index webpages?

Search engines optimize their searches by looking for key words that are used in the webpages or articles being looked up. It then takes ones that have the most matching key words to show up first when searching.

2. Do IP address affect search engine ranking? Why/How?

Yes it does because certain ip addresses can enable you to figure out whether the cite is credible or not. For example if a cite is .edu or .gov, you can be certain that the information is credible and it helps with “crap detection”.

3. Are keywords important for SEO? Why/How?

Yes they are because they help search engine index what comes up when something is searched up. Key words can help a post become recognized and easier to find for someone searching for a specific key word when searching. If you do not have key words, a post of web page can be hard to find.

4. How can you optimize html tags for SEO?

HTML tags can be optimized for SEO, unlike meta tags, which they enter in the HTML tag realm, they are the ones that structure the whole site. The order of these is incredibly crucial since without the specific order, then the site would not be as efficient as it can be. The order for these HTML tags  should be:

0- document name
1- doctype (DTD) – <!DOCTYPE html>
2- html
3- head
4- title
5- meta name (description)
6- meta name (keywords)
7- meta name (robots)
8- body
9- heading 1 (h1)


“Website Promotion / SEOwork @.”
Website Promotion . Tombolton.net. 25 Oct. 2013 <http://www.tombolton.net/website_promotion_html_tags_seo.html>.

“Set up Your Meta Description Tag.”
SEO Tutorial. Words in a Row, n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2013.

5. Can you use meta tags for search optimization, why/how?

Yes you can use meta tags for search engine optimization, but it will be making very little difference if you do or do not. This is because in the past, meta tags were abused to mislead search engines to porn sites using specific words like disney and pokemon. These helped a site to get popularity every time a kid accessed those searches and unwillingly exposed to such content.  The only use meta tags can be used for is that when your site is spotted, it will help the user to easily guide herself/himself through the description placed in said tags. The only two meta tags that help are the “<title></title>”, which serves as a word reference for keywords in a search engine, and the “<meta name=”description” content=””>” which serves a description of what the site is about.

To use the meta tags, there is special coding for them that calls them from the database. Just because it is special, doesn’t mean it is difficult, so to access  these tags, on the coding part after the closing title tag (</title>) the programmer can input the tag: <meta>. The problem is that this tag cannot be used alone, and it needs parameters like name or keywords in order to function (<meta name=”description”… or <meta name=”keywords” followed by …content=”(input information here)”>

The description will display in the search engine when the link to the site is listed, and the keywords portion of the code refer to the words that can be used to help bring the site up some ranks. Unfortunately, like said earlier, the search engine no longer prioritizes meta tags but the title and content of the site itself, so it is good to use meta tags for organization purposes.


“SEO Tutorial – Meta Tags Optimization.”
Search Engine Optimization SEO Tutorial SEO Tutorial Meta Tags Optimization Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2013.

“Set up Your Meta Description Tag.”
SEO Tutorial. Words in a Row, n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. http://www.wordsinarow.com/seo.html#metadesc

6. Alt attribute:

The Alt Attribute is an html element of an image where you can place text to describe the image, and it’s known as “alternative text”. Images cannot be “read” by search engines, so placing alternative text, or “Alt Text” within the Alt Attribute of an image gives search robots actual html code that can be “read” and indexed. This makes using Alt Text a potentially powerful SEO tool. Simply by using keywords and adding tags to the blog post describing the image can allow search engines to identify the text in the image thus leading to a more significantly effective search.




7. Title attribute:

Title attribute is when a little bit of coding is used in order to provide the reader with additional information about the HTML link that the user hovers their mouse over. Some common html elements include abbreviation elements, which look somewhat, like this:

<abbr title=”Incorporated”>Inc.</abbr>

This is used when some readers are unaware of what the text actually stands for.

Other common elements are also acronym, area, button, and cite. The title attribute improves the accessibility and usability of your blogs, thus appealing to the SEO of the blog as a whole.



8. Robots. Txt

Robot. Txt files inform search engines on how to interact with your blog’s content. It helps the search engines tell what is useful to preview on public pages and what is not. If used properly it is a very good tool for search optimization, if not then it may stop the search spiders from entering the websites and indexing the sites properly, thus search results will consequently be more difficult to find.



9. There are a few big steps to take to optimize a blog for searching.

a) Attach relevant keywords. The way Google searches for things works in a type of cyclical motion. If “SEO tips” is searched, it will also look for tags under related phrases, such as “SEO techniques” and “SEO tools”. Attach tags to the blog that are not only relevant to the content of the blog (the ones the audience will be using to search it), but also tags similar to those tags. Use as much detailed information as possible.

b) Use meta titles if you can. A lot of websites give the option to use what’s known as a “meta title”, which are a few keywords search engines will basically look at first. However, with updated indexing, meta titles aren’t used by Google anymore. Some search engines might still try and find meta titles however, so use them if you can. For instance, on Apple’s website their meta titles might be: “Apple Website”, “Official Website”, “Apple Products”, which pushes the Apple website to the front of search results.

c) Optimize the URL. Include keywords within the URL, as the search engine will look for that too. This is particularly important when trying to find a certain post or topic within a blog. If the URL contains that information it will be easier for the search engine to index it. For instance, don’t make your URL “mywebsite.com/16754/post2”, make it “mywebsite.com/university/adapting-to-university-life”.


Lodico, Jim. “6 Ways to Optimize Your Blog for Search Engines.” Social Media Examiner. N.p., 22 Oct. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/6-ways-to-optimize-your-blog-for-search-engines/&gt;.

10. Search engine optimization for a mobile phone is a bit different from that of desktop browsers. Typically, the way the device looks for content can differ from manufacturer to manufacturer, based off the operating system. This really can’t be avoided, but a good SEO job can still be done. An important first step is to create a new CSS sheet, usually called “handheld.css” (or “iphone.css” for apple) and streamline the websites content and layout for mobile viewers. This can help search engines look for more specific information. As well, continue to attach relevant tags to the website.

You can also work with the code to have the search engines on mobile phones look at the mobile site first. This is important, as they will index information that’s meant to be seen for a mobile device. If you don’t want your desktop website to show up, this is an important feature. The main issue with mobile SEO is that often the visual aesthetic of having a mobile website can hinder the search results for a website, as the mobile site is usually streamlined and with information stored in a different way. However, I’d argue that it’s more important to have a better mobile website than better SEO, considering that if someone was looking for topics on a phone that could lead to your website, it’s more important to have them not frustrated when they get there than to get to one of the first results but be unable to use it.

Also, with the introduction of Google Chrome for Android and a radically updated Safari in iOS 7, mobile search engines today are pretty much just as good as the desktop equivalent and in a lot of ways better, as innovation for mobile devices is moving more quickly than innovation for desktops. The main focus for a lot of companies that sell both desktop and mobile devices are to pay attention to mobile development, which is the inclining brand as desktops decline.


Krum, Cindy. “The New Mobile SEO: What You Need to Know.” Search Engine Land. N.p., 15 Apr. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://searchengineland.com/the-new-mobile-seo-what-you-need-to-know-40101&gt;.

11. Twitter does use SEO, but in a different way. Search Engine Optimization is quite a broad term in today’s online world of websites, blogs, and social media portals. Traditionally, website’s search engine optimization revolves around tags and meta titles and the URL. However, moving into the realm of social media, things become different. That’s because there isn’t an option to tag in social media, that’s up to the software makers to install. Usually there’s no point to as well, because one doesn’t usually search a post for something in social media on Google or another search engine, they use the social media itself to search.

For instance, if I was looking up content related to “Ryerson” on Twitter, I wouldn’t Google “Ryerson Twitter”. That would yield search results of Ryerson Twitter accounts. Instead I would go onto Twitter and search for it either as a word, or a hashtag. This is Twitter’s way of tagging posts made by users, which can be easily found by anybody.

Here are a few ways to optimize SEO using Twitter:

a) Add your website URL to your bio. This could traffic more people seeing your Twitter to your actual website. Also, people searching for your website could find your Twitter. Never underestimate the power of linking together websites.

b) Update your bio with relevant information. Search engines index this on Twitter, so leaving your bio blank or writing “Yolo for life” really won’t help people find your account. Write keywords that you think people will be typing that would make your account come up.

c) Try to use important keywords in the first 42 characters of a tweet. These are the most indexed characters by search engines and will be responsible for your post showing up on Google. Again, just don’t waste even one word on Twitter. With only 140 characters to use per tweet, the point is every word counts and adds to the overall message. If you wanted to tell a story, use Facebook. Twitter is streamlined, and better for it.

d) Optimizing the content in your tweet pushes your chances of being retweeted higher. If you’re retweeted, your tweet will appear on other people’s profiles, which vastly improves your chance of keywords being noted by search engines.

e) Use hashtags. Hashtags are Twitter’s way of finding content in your posts. Hashtags can also be clicked to lead to posts also using your hashtag, which can include your post. Essentially, just try and make your tweets accessible by the most amount of people as you can, which is the point of Twitter.


Weir, Kelley. “Improve Your SEO in 2013 with Twitter.” Dex One. N.p., 27 Feb. 2013. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. <http://www.dexone.com/resources/social-media/improve-your-seo-in-2013-with-twitter&gt;.

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